12 2019 PPG ANNUAL REPORT AND 10-K waterborne coatings formulations; lightweight sealants and coatings for aircraft; coatings that cool surfaces; coatings for recyclable metal packaging; and solutions for autonomous and battery-powered vehicles. The Company’s commitment to sustainability continues to yield tangible results. In 2019, we again made significant progress reducing our energy intensity, greenhouse gas emissions intensity and waste intensity. More information about PPG’s sustainability values, efforts, goals and data and our community and employee engagement programs can be found in our Sustainability Report and on our sustainability website at http://sustainability.ppg.com and on the CDP’s website at www.cdp.net. We are subject to existing and evolving standards relating to the protection of the environment. In management’s opinion, the Company operates in an environmentally sound manner and is well positioned, relative to environmental matters, within the industries in which it operates. PPG is negotiating with various government agencies concerning current and former manufacturing sites and offsite waste disposal locations, including certain sites on the National Priority List. While PPG is not generally a major contributor of wastes to these offsite waste disposal locations, each potentially responsible party may face governmental agency assertions of joint and several liability. Generally, however, a final allocation of costs is made based on relative contributions of wastes to the site. There is a wide range of cost estimates for cleanup of these sites, due largely to uncertainties as to the nature and extent of their condition and the methods that may have to be employed for their remediation. The Company has established reserves for onsite and offsite remediation of those sites where it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. Our experience to date regarding environmental matters leads us to believe that it will have continuing expenditures for compliance with provisions regulating the protection of the environment and for present and future remediation efforts at waste and plant sites. Management anticipates that such expenditures will occur over an extended period of time. In addition to the $304million currently reserved for environmental remediation efforts, wemay be subject to loss contingencies related to environmental matters estimated to be approximately $100 million to $200 million. These reasonably possible unreserved losses relate to environmental matters at a number of sites, none of which are individually significant. The loss contingencies related to these sites include significant unresolved issues such as the nature and extent of contamination at these sites and the methods that may have to be employed to remediate them. ($ in millions) 2019 2018 2017 Capital expenditures for environmental control projects $15 $20 $7 It is expected that capital expenditures for such projects in 2020 will be in the range of $20 million to $30 million. Although future capital expenditures are difficult to estimate accurately because of constantly changing regulatory standards and policies, it can be anticipated that environmental control standards will become increasingly stringent and the cost of compliance will increase. Management believes that the outcome of these environmental contingencies will not have a material adverse effect on PPG’s financial position or liquidity; however, any such outcome may be material to the results of operations of any particular period in which costs, if any, are recognized. See Note 14, “Commitments and Contingent Liabilities” under Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information related to environmental matters and our accrued liability for estimated environmental remediation costs. Available Information The Company’s website address is www.ppg.com . The Company posts, and shareholders may access without charge, the Company’s recent filings and any amendments thereto of its annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and its proxy statements as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The Company also posts all financial press releases, including earnings releases, to its website. All other reports filed or furnished to the SEC, including reports on Form 8-K, are available via direct link on PPG’s website to the SEC’s website, www.sec.gov . Reference to the Company’s, the SEC’s or other websites herein does not incorporate by reference any information contained on those websites and such information should not be considered part of this Form 10- K. Item 1A. Risk Factors As a global manufacturer of paints, coatings and specialty materials, we operate in a business environment that includes risks. These risks are not unlike the risks we have faced in the recent past nor are they unlike risks faced by our competitors. Each of the risks described in this section could adversely affect our results of operations, financial position and liquidity. While the factors listed here are considered to be the more significant factors, no such list should be considered to be a complete statement of all potential risks and uncertainties. Unlisted factors may present significant additional obstacles which may adversely affect our businesses and our results of operations, financial position and liquidity.